The Russell Organics Willowbark Phyto Toner is formulated to be appropriate for all skin types. Willowbark is extracted from the bark of the black willow tree, which is native to eastern North America, using a vacuum distillation method. Following time honored Shamanistic traditions, the extract is made through an aqueous infusion technique from freshly harvested bark that is collected in the spring. The freshly prepared extract is reported to have analgesic, antiseptic, astringent, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory properties. This particular extract has been shown to enhance cellular turnover. A very mild keratolytic effect smoothes out rough, tired, and dry skin, improving overall appearance. The smoothing effect, from the active Salicin, results in a reduction of fine lines, wrinkles, and weathered appearance seen with problem skin. Lavender Hydrosol soothes and balances, while Rosemary Hydrosol revitalizes. This toner will contribute a smoothing and restorative effect on dry, chapped skin as well as balancing out oily and problem skin. Directions: Use as desired. After cleansing, or any other time desired, spray onto cotton ball and gentle apply to face and neck. Use with Refining Face Wash and Creme 24. Net Weight: 4 oz. / 120 ml Ingredients: Water, Organic Lavandula Angustifolia (Lavender) Flower Water, Organic Rosmarinus Officinalis (Rosemary) Leaf/Flower Water, Salix Nigra (Willowbark) Extract, Artemisia Ludoviciana (Owyhee) Water, Capryloyl Glycine, Sarcosine, Cinnamomum Zeylanicum (Cinnamon) Bark Extract.